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Lumbar Puncture: Characteristic CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) Formulas

Karakteristik Cairan Cerebrospinal pada Pemeriksaan Pungsi Lumbal

Condition Cells Protein Glucose Other Features
Bacterial infection WBC >50/mm3, often greatly increased 100–250 mg% 20–50 mg%; usually lower than half of blood glucose level Gram stain shows organisms; pressure increased
Viral, fungal, spirochetal infection WBC 10–100/mm3 50–200 mg% Normal or slightly reduced Special culture techniques required; pressure normal or slightly increased
Tuberculous infection WBC >25/mm3 100–1,000 mg% <50, often markedly reduced Special culture techniques and PCR may be needed to detect organisms
Subarachnoid hemorrhage RBC >500/mm3; slight increase in WBC 60–150 mg% Normal Must be distinguished from traumatic lumbar puncture by presence of xanthochromia of spun sample; greatly increased pressure
Cerebral hemorrhage, trauma RBC 50–200/mm3; higher if ventricular rupture of blood 50–150 mg% Normal Pressure may be elevated
Ischemic stroke Normal or few WBC Normal Normal Normal pressure unless brain swelling
Multiple sclerosis Normal or few WBC Normal or slightly increased Normal Increased IgG fraction and oligoclonal bands
Meningeal cancer WBC 10–100/mm3 Usually elevated Normal or depressed Neoplastic cells in CSF; elevation of certain protein markers (e.g., Beta 2-microglobulin)

Adams and Victor's Principles of Neurology 9th Edition (McGraw-Hill) 2009

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