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Commonly Recognized Presentations of Pneumonia (Manifestasi Klinis Pneumonia yang Sering Dijumpai)

Etiology Common Symptoms Common Associations or Findings
S. pneumoniae  Fever, chills, or rigors Community-acquired
Productive cough Usually sporadic
Chest pain Large outbreaks possible in those sharing living quarters
More common in winter
K. pneumoniae  Currant jelly sputum Alcoholics
Abrupt onset
Severe illness
H. influenza  Fever Common in both children and adults
Cough COPD patients
-Splenectomy patients
S. aureus  Hemoptysis Intravenous drug users
Chest pain Endocarditis
Septic thrombophebitis
Indwelling catheters
After influenza A infection
L. pneumophila  Febrile systemic illness Exposure to aerosolized water droplets containing bacteria
Prodrome of fever, malaise Outbreak can occur if many are exposed
Nonproductive cough Can have significant gastrointestinal complaints
M. pneumoniae  Minor respiratory illness with insidious onset Rash, headache, sore throat, bullous myringitis or other extrapulmonary manifestations
Young patients
Occurs in any season
Outbreaks can occur in those sharing close quarters
C. pneumoniae  Nonproductive cough More common in children and the elderly
Fever rare Rare extrapulmonary infection
Long incubation period Sore throat and hoarseness
Influenza Rapid progression of fever, cough, dyspnea, and cyanosis Underlying pulmonary or cardiac disorders
Aspiration Progressive fever Patients with impaired swallowing ability as in stroke or multiple sclerosis
Purulent sputum Patients with altered level of consciousness as in seizure or alcohol intoxication
Shortness of breath
Coarse rhonchi over dependent lung zones
P. aeruginosa or other gram-negative bacteria  Abrupt onset of symptoms COPD patients
Severe symptoms Cystic fibrosis patients
H. capsulatum  Self-limited illness Most people are asymptomatic
Fever and chill Found commonly in the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys
Fatigue Most common endemic mycosis in the United States
Anterior chest discomfort
Nonproductive cough
P. jiroveci  Insidious onset Almost exclusively in immunocompromised hosts
Hacking nonproductive cough Hypoxia can be severe
Retrosternal chest tightness

Referensi : Infectious Diseases - Emergency Department, Diagnosis & Management (McGraw-Hill) 2008

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