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Some Causes of Nonimmune Hydrops Fetalis

Beberapa Penyebab Hydrops Fetalis

Fetal causes
Atrial or ventricular septal defect, hypoplastic left heart, pulmonary valve insufficiency, Ebstein subaortic stenosis, dilated heart, A-V canal defect, single ventricle, Fallot tetralogy, premature closure of foramen ovale, subendocardial fibroelastosis
Diaphragmatic hernia, cystic adenomatous malformation, pulmonary hypoplasia, lung hamartoma, mediastinal teratoma, chylothorax
Jejunal atresia, midgut volvulus, intestinal malrotation or duplication, meconium peritonitis
Urethral stenosis or atresia, posterior bladder neck obstruction, bladder perforation, prune belly, neurogenic bladder, ureterocele
Thanatophoric dwarfism, arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy, hypophosphatasia, osteogenesis imperfecta, achondroplasia, achondrogenesis, recessive cystic hygroma, and Neu-Laxova, Saldino-Noonan, and Pena-Shokeir type I syndromes
    Conduction defects
Supraventricular tachycardias, heart block (including with maternal lupus erythematosus)
Cystic hygroma, congenital lymphedema, polysplenia syndrome, neuroblastoma, tuberous sclerosis, sacrococcygeal teratoma
Trisomy 21 and other trisomies, Turner syndrome, triploidy
A-V shunts, large vessel thromboses (cava, portal, or femoral vein), Kasabach-Merritt syndrome
Cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, syphilis, listeriosis, hepatitis, rubella, parvovirus, leptospirosis, Chagas disease
  Multifetal pregnancy
Twin-twin transfusion syndrome, twin reverse-arterial perfusion (TRAP) syndrome
β4-thalassemia (Bart hemoglobin), twisted ovarian cyst, fetal trauma, anemia, Gaucher disease, gangliosidosis, sialidosis

Placental causes

Chorioangioma, fetomaternal hemorrhage, A-V shunts, placenta trauma with fetal hemorrhage, twin-twin transfusion syndrome

Maternal causes



Williams Obstetrics 23rd Edition (McGraw-Hill) 2009

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